Microsoft Academic Search is an experimental research service developed by Microsoft Research to explore how scholars, scientists, students, and practitioners find academic content, researchers, institutions, and activities. Microsoft Academic Search indexes not only millions of academic publications, it also displays the key relationships between and among subjects, content, and authors, highlighting the critical links that help define scientific research. As is true of many research projects at Microsoft, this service is not intended to be a production Web site, and it will likely be taken offline when appropriate given the research goals of the project.
Bing is a comprehensive, general interest search engine. It includes scholarly content, but is by no means limited to it. In contrast, Microsoft Academic Search concentrates exclusively on scholarly materials. With Microsoft Academic Search, not only are all search results relevant to the research community, but search results also contain features uniquely geared toward this audience.
In Microsoft Academic Search, objects in the search results are sorted based on two factors:
Some search results can be sorted by Field Rating. The field rating is similar to h-index in that it calculates the number of publications by an author and the distribution of citations to the publications. Field rating only calculates publications and citations within a specific field and shows the impact of the scholar or journal within that specific field.
To perform a basic search
To narrow your search to a specific subject area.
If you have more specific search terms, click Advanced Search. Click Author, Conference, Journal, Organization, Year, or DOI, and then type your search term(s) in the box. Click Add to Search, and then click the search button.
For example, to find publications related to “data mining” that were published after 1999, type the search terms in the search box, click Advanced Search, click Year, and then type 1999 in the time period box. Click the Add to search button, and then click the search button.
You can also perform advanced searches in the basic search box with structured queries. You can use the Structured Query Language as follows:
<query> := <tokens>+ <token> := <normal query> | <field query> <normal query> := (array of any non-white-space character) <field query> := <key><oper><field query value> <key> := 'author' | 'title' | 'conf' | 'jour' | 'year' <oper> := '>=' | '<=' | ':' | '=' | '>' | '<' <field query value> : <normal query> | '(' <normal query>+ ')'
For example, to search for publications containing "object level" in the title and published after 2004, type: title:(object level) year>=2004"
When you conduct a search, Microsoft Academic Search returns a list of publications
on the search results page.
The search results display publication titles, authors, journals, and citation information. You can explore any of these elements further by clicking them. For example, if you click a journal name, you will see a list of all publications from that journal that are indexed by Microsoft Academic Search.
The sidebar. The sidebar of the search results page displays contextual information to help you further identify relevant resources. Depending on your search, this might include popular authors, recent conferences, journals, and related keywords. You can click any of these related search topics for additional information.
The publication detail page. When you find a publication that is relevant to your interests, click the publication title to go to the publication detail page.
A publication detail page contains the following information:
In addition, the sidebar of the publication detail page lets you browse by related keywords and publications. Click the Citation Graph button to go to the clickable graph that provides a way of navigating from a particular resource to the publications that cite it.
You can also subscribe to a Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feed for any search result by clicking Subscribe at the upper right of the search results page.
The aim of Microsoft Academic Search is to help you uncover information related to your research query. This includes not only journal publications on the topic in question, but also the authors, conferences, and publications that are associated with the topic. The search results sidebar contains a variety of links to help you explore the most relevant resources.
The Microsoft Academic Search home page contains a list of fields of study. Click any of these to explore popular publications, organizations, and authors within that field. Each field contains a number of specialized fields that can be browsed in the same manner. In addition, to identify publications, experts, conferences, and other information, you can browse by field-specific keywords.
One of the most important components of searching academic publications is citation linking. Following citations from and to publications is critical to information discovery. Microsoft Academic Search provides an efficient mechanism to facilitate this. Search results, whenever possible, display lists and links to both referenced publications and citing publications.
Microsoft Academic Search highlights the context of a citation (when possible) by displaying the section of the citing publication in which it is referenced.
The accuracy and completeness of these lists is largely dependent on information provided by the publisher or content host. If you have any suggested corrections or ideas to improve this feature, contact email@example.com. Microsoft is committed to the continued development of features that make it easier for researchers to follow citation paths.
Microsoft Academic Search provides detailed rankings in more than a dozen different fields. Rankings are based on the publications and citations that are currently indexed by Microsoft Academic Search. Rankings will change as more information is added.
To find the top results in your field
Author profiles are dynamically created for researchers whose work is discoverable within Microsoft Academic Search. Author profiles contain publication histories, citation information, collaboration details, publication lists, research interests, and institutional affiliations.
Please note that the information associated with Microsoft Academic Search author profiles is derived from the tens of millions of scholarly publications that are currently indexed by Microsoft Academic Search. Most of these publications have reference lists that Microsoft processes. The indexed publications and reference lists help create a snapshot of individual authors' publication history, productivity, and impact. As more content is indexed within Microsoft Academic Search, the accuracy and completeness of the author profile data improves. In addition, and consistent with indexing industry norms, Microsoft Academic Search does not filter out self-citations from its citation counts. Learn more about updating an author profile .
You can search Microsoft Academic Search for specific authors, and when data is available, the search results will display a coauthor link. The coauthor link takes you to the Coauthor Graph feature, which provides a visual display of the relationships between and among coauthors.
To reveal details about the publications on which coauthors have collaborated, click any of the connective strands. The more publications on which scholars have collaborated, the closer their nodes are positioned.
A related feature is the Coauthor Path, which lets you enter the names of two scholars and see the “degrees of separation” between them. Both the Coauthor Path and the Coauthor Graph features can be easily embedded into external websites.
This visual representation feature shows the citation relationships among publications, providing an innovative way of navigating from a particular publication to the publications that cite it. Double-clicking a citing publication will re-draw the graph, showing the publications that cite that publication. Clicking the edge between any two publications will expose the citation context, provided such information is available in Microsoft Academic Search.
This feature provides analysis of publication trends of academic fields and stacked area charts of the data. It provides you with a clear view of how publication interests have changed over time. You can also get a list of top authors during a selected time period.
This feature makes it easy for you to map scholarly output within organizations geographically. Organizations are displayed as dots on a global map with their color and size related to their number of authors. Clicking an organization displays further detail about its authors. You can also filter the displayed organizations and authors by field; organizations automatically resize based on their number of authors in that particular field.
This feature lets you compare the information of two organizations, such as their citation counts, keywords, and top authors. A scatter plot displays the trends in the number of publications and citations for each organization. The results page also displays the differences between the keywords related to the organizations’ research priorities and research fields. Keywords that are related to only one organization are displayed in blue. Keywords that are related to both organizations are displayed in orange. You can also compare the authors of each organization by looking at each organization’s author lists.
Microsoft Academic Search provides application programming interfaces (APIs) to allow you to build compelling tools and experiences on top of the rich data. Whether you want to build your own ranking of institutions or build a visual explorer for browsing academic papers in the genetics field, we believe the APIs make it easy for you to start that project.We will continue to improve the APIs and we look forward to closely working with you—the community—to make sure the APIs do deliver the reliable, high-quality results so that you can focus on your apps and services.
The API program demonstrates the commitment of Microsoft Research to collaboration by placing its building blocks into the open science community. Microsoft Academic Search is a service of Microsoft Research. The charter of Microsoft Research is to collaborate with the world’s foremost researchers in academia, industry, and government to move research in new directions across nearly every field of computer science, engineering, and general science. Microsoft Academic Search helps to accomplish this goal by improving the discoverability of scholarly materials. Microsoft Research recognizes that one way to multiply this impact is to open up its index to other non-commercial research entities whose creativity and talent can directly accelerate research and discovery.
Among the new and innovative uses of Microsoft Academic Search data are the Eigenfactor project, which has been exploring the flow of citations between the subdomains of Computer Science literature and producing new interactive maps, and the ScienceCard project, which is aggregating various forms of publication-level metrics.
Please take note of the following restrictions before requesting an AppID:
To request a new AppID, please provide the following information in an email message,
and send it to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Please provide a description of your project (should be longer than 100 words) or provide the URL to the webpage that has your project description.
Microsoft Academic Search encompasses the entire research spectrum, including science,
technology, and medicine(STM), the social sciences, and the humanities. Microsoft
Academic Search provides comprehensive results in 15 different disciplines and more
than 200 subdomains. We continue to work with dozens of publishers and other content
providers to increase our data coverage.
If you have a content source you would like to see included within Microsoft Academic Search, or if you are a publisher that wishes to participate, please send an email message to email@example.com.
The following content providers that have agreed to participate in Microsoft Academic Search as of early 2013. Note that some partners’ content is still in process and is not yet available.
Microsoft Academic Search includes journal publications, conference proceedings, reports, white papers, and a variety of other content types. It is not uncommon for multiple versions of a research paper to exist (for example, preprints, postprints, and published publications). Whenever possible, Microsoft Academic Search search results group multiple versions of a publication together. When a publication has a definitive “version of record” (that is, a published journal publication), the search results list the version of record first, along with the publisher’s logo.
Microsoft Academic Search does not store the full text of publications. However, if an identifiable link to the full text of a search result can be located, you will see a download link on the publication detail page. The download link will redirect you to the source of the publication, where you can access the full text. Some of these sources might require a personal or library subscription, membership fee, or other payment before you can download the publication.
To add an author profile
An author profile is automatically created when a publication is added to Microsoft Academic Search. Learn more about adding publications. It can take up to a week before the author profile is available on Microsoft Academic Search. If you cannot find the author profile after that time has passed, you can contact firstname.lastname@example.org. and request that an author profile be created.
To edit author basic information
To change a publication associated with an author profile
If you find duplicate author profiles in Microsoft Academic Search, you can merge
To merge author profiles
To add a publication by using a PDF URL
To edit the list of publications associated with an author or to add a publication, see Managing Author Profiles.
To edit publication basic information
If you find duplicate publications in Microsoft Academic Search, you can merge them.
To merge publications
Microsoft Research is dedicated to conducting both basic and applied research in computer science and software engineering. Researchers focus on more than 55 areas of computing and collaborate with leading academic, government, and industry researchers to advance the state of the art. Microsoft Research has expanded over the years to eight locations worldwide and a number of collaborative projects that bring together the best minds in computer science to advance a research agenda based on their unique talents and interests.
Other websites from Microsoft Research:
Please send your questions and comments to email@example.com.